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Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis engages an immune-mediate development that causes an abnormal response of the body’s immune system that has an effect on the myelin sheath or nerve fibres which is a fatty substance of central nervous system (CNS). Immune system targets the substance that insulates the nerve fibbers of myelin sheath within CNS. Spinal cord, brain, and optical nerves are the part of the CNS. The MS factor is considered to be triggered in a genetically susceptible persons supposed to be in combination of one or more environmental factors.

The particular antigen target the myelin sheath and damages or destroys the same is still remains unknown. Therefore Multiple sclerosis is called to be an “immune-mediated” disorder rather than “autoimmune” by the neurologists. The damaged part or destroyed nerve fibre causes interruption or send distorted nerve impulses while the impulses travel from to the brain and spinal cord thus causes varieties of symptoms.

Symptoms

Difficulty in walking, loosing balance is the primary symptoms of MS. The fatigue is another common symptom of MS wherein it is more than just feeling tired or exhausted. MS has a devastating effect on the performance at work significantly and reduces the capacity gradually from moderate to severe. Including extreme fatigue Difficulty in walking causes the following reasons;

  • Spastic Muscle
  • Improper balance in core
  • Numbed feet or legs
  • Muscle weakness

Other common symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are:

  • Acute or Chronic pain
  • Tremor
  • Lack of concentration, memory
  • Cognitive skills reduced significantly
  • Disordered Speech

Types of Multiple Sclerosis

1. Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS): Frequent relapsations of MS in regular intervals can be noticed. In the subdued or remission phase, the symptoms of MS found absent or mild. The disorder does not grows in the remission phase.

2. Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS): Results from Demyelination in the CNS may involve an episode of symptoms. Two types of such episodes are there namely multifocal and monofocal. Any episode may extend for a period of 24 hours invariably.

3. Primary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS): Compared to other type of MS it is the worse type that hampered the neurological function mostly at the onset. Though, sustained for a short period as well.

4. Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS): With respect to MS it is an advance stage of the RRMS that becomes more progressive in nature. Gradually deteriorate the functions of body with evidences of noticeable and frequent relapses.

Treatment

MS is still incurable and beyond any comprehensive treatment. But treatment options are available to delay or slower relapse.

Disease-modifying medications can be used for treatment in case of RRMS, for slower progression of the disorder and resisting the decay of fibre nerves to some extent only.

Some self-injectable disease-modifying drugs that includes:

  • Glatopa
  • Copaxone
  • Rebif
  • Extavia
  • Avonex
  • Plegridy
  • Betaseron

Drugs for administering orally for treating RRMS are:

  • Teriflunomide (Aubagio)
  • Fingolimod (Gilenya)
  • Dimethyl-fumarate (Tecfidera)

Intravenous infusion are also recommended for treatment of MS in acute condition like

  • Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
  • Natalizumab (Tysabri)
  • Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada)

Neurologist sometimes prescribes corticosteroids also for treating the relapses of MS. To enhance the quality of life of the person suffering from MS there are some other methods of treatment available but it varies from person to person.


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